1. Grains, seeds of the coffee tree
2. A drink made from roasted and ground beans of the coffee tree.
Grain coffee tree, rich in aromatic substances and alkaloids, mainly the caffeine. Homeland – South Arabia (Yemen) and Ethiopia. There are currently producing the best varieties (mocha, Arabica). However, the main suppliers of coffee to the world market – South America (especially Brazil and Colombia), where it was brought by Europeans. These varieties according to their biochemical indicators worse than the African-Arab.
Attitude to coffee, as a beverage, throughout its long history, was ambiguous. In the Arab East, in Asia it has always considered stimulating, strong, but harmless. In Europe, it is extremely appreciated until the XVIII century when mainly determined country-consumers of coffee – Poland, Austria, Germany (as opposed to the tea – England, Russia). From the late eighteenth century and especially in the nineteenth century against coffee, like tea, were put forward strong objections – they identified a number of harmful that was completely devoid of scientific arguments.
In this century began to make attempts to objectively evaluate these products by observing consuming their people. To the 20-30-th years of the tea was fully rehabilitated as a healthy drink about coffee doubts intensified and again is totally unreasonable. Comparison of the chemical composition of both products was confirmed, it seemed, conclusion: caffeine, an alkaloid, is much stronger than the theine of tea, and on the nervous system, primarily the brain, is more exciting. However, all these conclusions either purely mechanically (by comparing equal parts by weight of tea and coffee in its pure form in the laboratory) or on the basis of subjective feelings (by interviewing people), but completely disregarding the imperative: what exactly contains the solution. Meanwhile, useful or harmful drink, depends entirely on how it is cooked, that is actually extracted from coffee in each case. Attempts to squeeze out more coffee substances by enhancing its heating producing an undesirable effect in the drink increases the dose of harmful alkaloids, and much more than wrong when making tea.
Negative effects coffee has on the body, if you eat it with milk, and worse still, boil them together. And in this and in another case the coagulation process, which generally complicates digestion. Drink coffee with milk and cream began only in the late XVIII – early XIX century, first in Vienna and then in other neighbouring countries. Since that time, the Europeans are beginning to feel coffee “discomfort”.
In the East never drank coffee with milk.
What is required for a proper way to prepare coffee? First, as for tea, without salt or other additives the water. Secondly, it is very slow and very brief heating, measured in fractions of a second boiling point. Practically this is achieved only with the help of the Turks – the pear shaped vessel with a thick bottom made of copper or silver, but not from alloys, and roasters – iron box filled with river sand with small pebbles, and placed where the Turks. This equipment provides a slow, non-contact with the fire warming the vessels and their contents. The brewing should occur in the following order. In Turku pour the boiling water, poured ground coffee and put a small amount of sugar, which slows down the process of boiling, and at the same time makes it visible, then pour cold water. The appearance on the surface of the foam, or rather – insignificant after presence is a signal of readiness of the drink (it only boils inside the vessel). This coffee is harmless and mildly-stimulating effect on the nervous system.